Clinical Autonomic Research published August 2013 (Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 201-207) addressed ‘Autonomic changes in young smokers: acute effects of inspiratory exercise’.
Rodrigues F, Araujo AA, Mostarda CT et al
Human Movement Laboratory, São Judas Tadeu University, Av. Taquari, 546, São Paulo, SP, 03166-000, Brazil.

One major consequence of smoking is the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) i.e. all the diseases of the heart and circulation, including coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease and aortic disease. Smoking is one of the risk factors as the toxins in tobacco can damage and narrow the coronary arteries, making the smoker more vulnerable to coronary heart disease.


Little was known about the early consequences of smoking and the acute effects of a single inspiratory muscle exercise session (IME). This research set out to evaluate the acute effects of inspiratory muscle exercise on cardiac parameters of young smokers.


Following an acute inspiratory muscle exercise session blood pressure and lactate were evaluated, and RR interval was recorded for posterior analysis of heart rate variability, before and after inspiratory muscle exercise.


Findings indicated that a single session of inspiratory muscle exercise was able to both reduce systolic BP and improve parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations in young smokers.


“The results of this study highlight the importance of furthering research on this area to better elucidate the acute and chronic effects of inspiratory muscle training on early cardiovascular and pulmonary changes of cigarette smoking.”


Read the full Abstract for Autonomic changes in young smokers: acute effects of inspiratory exercise.